Extracellular Vesicle miRNAs in the Promotion of Cardiac Neovascularisation

Despoina Kesidou, Paula A. da Costa Martins, Leon J. de Windt, Mairi Brittan, Abdelaziz Beqqali*, Andrew Howard Baker*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

15 Citations (Web of Science)

Abstract

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality worldwide claiming almost 17. 9 million deaths annually. A primary cause is atherosclerosis within the coronary arteries, which restricts blood flow to the heart muscle resulting in myocardial infarction (MI) and cardiac cell death. Despite substantial progress in the management of coronary heart disease (CHD), there is still a significant number of patients developing chronic heart failure post-MI. Recent research has been focused on promoting neovascularisation post-MI with the ultimate goal being to reduce the extent of injury and improve function in the failing myocardium. Cardiac cell transplantation studies in pre-clinical models have shown improvement in cardiac function; nonetheless, poor retention of the cells has indicated a paracrine mechanism for the observed improvement. Cell communication in a paracrine manner is controlled by various mechanisms, including extracellular vesicles (EVs). EVs have emerged as novel regulators of intercellular communication, by transferring molecules able to influence molecular pathways in the recipient cell. Several studies have demonstrated the ability of EVs to stimulate angiogenesis by transferring microRNA (miRNA, miR) molecules to endothelial cells (ECs). In this review, we describe the process of neovascularisation and current developments in modulating neovascularisation in the heart using miRNAs and EV-bound miRNAs. Furthermore, we critically evaluate methods used in cell culture, EV isolation and administration.

Original languageEnglish
Article number579892
Number of pages25
JournalFrontiers in physiology
Volume11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 25 Sep 2020

Keywords

  • extracellular vesicles (EV)
  • microRNA (miR)
  • neovascularisation
  • angiogenesis
  • cardiac
  • myocardial infarct
  • exosome (EXO)
  • regeneration
  • ENDOTHELIAL PROGENITOR CELLS
  • GOVERNS VASCULAR INTEGRITY
  • HEART-FAILURE PATIENTS
  • MYOCARDIAL-INFARCTION
  • ANGIOGENIC PROPERTIES
  • INHIBITS ANGIOGENESIS
  • PARACRINE MECHANISMS
  • MICRORNA BIOGENESIS
  • INDUCE ANGIOGENESIS
  • EXOSOMES

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