Extracellular mitochondria in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF): Potential types and key roles in central nervous system (CNS) physiology and pathogenesis

A. Caicedo*, K. Zambrano, S. Sanon, A.W.D. Gavilanes

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journal(Systematic) Review article peer-review

9 Citations (Web of Science)

Abstract

The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has an important role in the transport of nutrients and signaling molecules to the central nervous and immune systems through its circulation along the brain and spinal cord tissues. The mitochondrial activity in the central nervous system (CNS) is essential in processes such as neuroplasticity, neural differentiation and production of neurotransmitters. Interestingly, extracellular and active mitochondria have been detected in the CSF where they act as a biomarker for the outcome of pathologies such as subarachnoid hemorrhage and delayed cerebral ischemia. Additionally, cell-free-circulating mitochondrial DNA (ccf-mtDNA) has been detected in both the CSF of healthy donors and in that of patients with neurodegenerative diseases. Key questions arise as there is still much debate regarding if ccf-mtDNA detected in CSF is associated with a diversity of active or inactive extracellular mitochondria coexisting in distinct pathologies. Additionally, it is of great scientific and medical importance to identify the role of extracellular mitochondria (active and inactive) in the CSF and the difference between them being damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) or factors that promote homeostasis. This review analyzes the different types of extracellular mitochondria, methods for their identification and their presence in CSF. Extracellular mitochondria in the CSF could have an important implication in health and disease, which may lead to the development of medical approaches that utilize mitochondria as therapeutic agents.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)255-269
Number of pages15
JournalMitochondrion
Volume58
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2021

Keywords

  • Extracellular mitochondria types
  • Mitochondrial fragments
  • Cerebrospinal fluid
  • Cell-free-circulating DNA
  • Mitochondrial transfer
  • transplant
  • Neurodegenerative diseases
  • MESENCHYMAL STEM-CELLS
  • ALZHEIMERS-DISEASE
  • MEMBRANE-PARTICLES
  • APOPTOTIC BODIES
  • DNA
  • BRAIN
  • ASTROCYTES
  • BIOMARKER
  • VESICLES
  • DAMAGE

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