Extra-esophageal symptoms in individuals with and without erosive esophagitis: a case-control study in Albania

E. Sadiku, E. Hasani, I. Kellici, I. Mone, F. Kraja, B. Kraja*, G. Burazeri

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


IntroductionErosive reflux esophagitis caused a large clinical spectrum of symptoms. Our aim was to assess the prevalence of extra-esophageal symptoms in individuals with and those without erosive esophagitis in Albania.MethodsA case-control study was conducted at the Regional Hospital of Durres, the second main district in Albania, a transitional country in South Eastern Europe, including 248 patients with erosive esophagitis (aged 46.516.3 years) and 273 controls (aged 46.416.0 years; response rate: 70%) enrolled during the period January 2013-June 2014. Both cases and controls underwent upper endoscopy. Information on socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors was also collected. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the association of erosive esophagitis and extra-esophageal symptoms.Results Patients with erosive esophagitis had a higher prevalence of excessive alcohol consumption, smoking, sedentarity, non-Mediterranean diet and obesity compared to their control counterparts (9% vs. 5%, 70% vs. 49%, 31% vs. 17%, 61% vs. 49% and 22% vs. 9%, respectively). Upon adjustment for all socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle/behavioral factors, there was evidence of a strong association of erosive esophagitis with chronic cough (OR=3.2, 95% CI=1.7-5.8), and even more so with laryngeal disorders (OR=4.4, 95% CI=2.6-7.5). In all models, the association of erosive esophagitis with any extra-esophageal symptoms was strong and mainly consistent with each of the symptoms separately (fully-adjusted model: OR=4.6, 95% CI=2.9-7.3).Conclusion Our findings indicate that the prevalence of extra-esophageal symptoms is higher among patients with erosive esophagitis in a transitional country characterized conventionally by employment of a Mediterranean diet.
Original languageEnglish
Article number76
Number of pages8
JournalBMC Gastroenterology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 16 Feb 2021


  • albania
  • erosive reflux esophagitis
  • extra-esophageal symptoms
  • gerd
  • Extra-esophageal symptoms
  • GERD
  • Erosive reflux esophagitis
  • Albania

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