Explaining the determinants of hookah smoking cessation among southern Iranian women: a qualitative study

Sakineh Dadipoor, Gerjo Kok, Ali Heyrani, Teamur Aghamolaei*, Mohtasham Ghaffari, Amin Ghanbarnezhad

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Background: Hookah smoking has been increasingly popular in Iran within the last two decades. The present study aims to explain the determinants of hookah smoking cessation among southern Iranian women in Bandar Abbas.
Methods: The present study is a pioneering qualitative research that employed a conventional content analysis to explore factors affecting the hookah smoking cessation between 2018 and 2019. In total, 36 in-depth, semi-structured interviews were held with experienced individuals (15 women with successful cessation and 21 women with unsuccessful cessation) who 15 maximally diverged in terms of age, education, and occupation, from different geographical areas of the city. The interview process went on until the data were satiated. The required data were then analyzed qualitatively in MAXQDA.
Results: Overall, six major categories were extracted. They included incentive background, need for freedom, control of external stimuli, religious norms, self-efficacy, and political factors. Conclusions: As the results showed, there were many external factors affecting the decision to quit or cut down on the rate of smoking hookahs. Catering for the required conditions and factors to strengthen the promotive ones and perceived threats, spiritual support and self-efficacy can effectively help successful cessation or reduction programs of hookah smoking.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)469-474
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Substance Use
Issue number5
Early online date18 Mar 2020
Publication statusPublished - 2 Sep 2020


  • Hookah smoking
  • smoking
  • smoking cessation
  • qualitative research
  • southern Iran
  • women

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