The clustering of platelet glycoprotein receptors with cytosolic YxxL and YxxM motifs, including GPVI, CLEC-2 and PEAR1, triggers activation via phosphorylation of the conserved tyrosine residues and recruitment of the tandem SH2 (Src homology 2) domain effector proteins, Syk and PI 3-kinase. We have modelled the clustering of these receptors with monovalent, divalent and tetravalent soluble ligands and with transmembrane ligands based on the law of mass action using ordinary differential equations and agent-based modelling. The models were experimentally evaluated in platelets and transfected cell lines using monovalent and multivalent ligands, including novel nanobody-based divalent and tetravalent ligands, by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Ligand valency, receptor number, receptor dimerisation, receptor phosphorylation and a cytosolic tandem SH2 domain protein act in synergy to drive receptor clustering. Threshold concentrations of a CLEC-2-blocking antibody and Syk inhibitor act in synergy to block platelet aggregation. This offers a strategy for countering the effect of avidity of multivalent ligands and in limiting off-target effects.
|Number of pages||28|
|Journal||PLoS Computational Biology|
|Early online date||28 Nov 2022|
|Publication status||Published - Nov 2022|