Anorectal malformations (ARM) are rare congenital malformations, resulting from disturbed hindgut development. A genetic etiology has been suggested, but evidence for the involvement of specific genes is scarce. We evaluated the contribution of rare and low-frequency coding variants in ARM etiology, assuming a multifactorial model.
We analyzed 568 Caucasian ARM patients and 1,860 population-based controls using the Illumina Human Exome Beadchip array, which contains >240,000 rare and low-frequency coding variants. GenomeStudio clustering and calling was followed by re-calling of 'no-calls' using zCall for patients and controls simultaneously. Single variant and gene-based analyses were performed to identify statistically significant associations, applying Bonferroni correction. Following an extra quality control step, candidate variants were selected for validation using Sanger sequencing.
When we applied a MAF of >= 1.0%, no variants or genes showed statistically significant associations with ARM. Using a MAF cut-off at 0.4%, 13 variants initially reached statistical significance, but had to be discarded upon further inspection: ten variants represented calling errors of the software, while the minor alleles of the remaining three variants were not confirmed by Sanger sequencing.
Our results show that rare and low-frequency coding variants with large effect sizes, present on the exome chip do not contribute to ARM etiology.
- CANDIDATE GENE