Exercise, energy balance and body composition

Klaas R. Westerterp*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

44 Citations (Web of Science)

Abstract

Activity-induced energy expenditure, as determined by the activity pattern including exercise, is the most variable component of daily energy expenditure. Here, the focus is on effects of exercise training on energy balance and body composition in subjects with a sedentary or light-active lifestyle. Then, exercise training induces an energy imbalance consistently lower than prescribed energy expenditure from exercise. Additionally, individual responses are highly variable and decrease in time. Combining the results from 23 exercise training studies in normal-weight, overweight, and obese subjects, varying in duration from 2 to 64 weeks, showed an average initial energy imbalance of about 2 MJ/day with an exponential decline to nearly zero after about 1 year. A compensatory increase in energy intake is the most likely explanation for the lower than expected effect of exercise on energy balance. Overall, exercise training results in a healthier body composition as reflected by a reduction of body fat, especially in overweight and obese subjects, with little or no long-term effect on body weight.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1246-1250
Number of pages5
JournalEuropean Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Volume72
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2018

Keywords

  • RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED-TRIAL
  • INDUCED WEIGHT-LOSS
  • PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY
  • AEROBIC EXERCISE
  • OBESE WOMEN
  • FOOD-INTAKE
  • FAT LOSS
  • EXPENDITURE
  • MEN
  • OVERWEIGHT

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