Example-based learning: Effects of model expertise in relation to student expertise

P. Boekhout, T. van Gog, M.W.J. van de Wiel, D. Gerards-Last, J. Geraets

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Background Worked examples are very effective for novice learners They typically present a written-out ideal (didactical) solution for learners to study

Aims This study used worked examples of patient history taking in physiotherapy that presented a non-didactical solution (i e based on actual performance) The effects of model expertise (i e worked example based on advanced third-year student model or expert physiotherapist model) in relation to students expertise (i e first or second-year) were investigated

Sample One hundred and thirty-four physiotherapy students (61 first year and 73 second-year)

Methods Design was 2 X 2 factorial with factors Student Expertise (first-year vs second-year) and Model Expertise (expert vs advanced student) Within expertise levels students were randomly assigned to the Expert Example or the Advanced Student Example condition All students studied two examples (content depending on their assigned condition) and then completed a retention and test task They rated their invested mental effort after each example and test task

Results Second year students invested less mental effort in studying the examples and in performing the retention and transfer tasks than first year students They also performed better on the retention test but not on the transfer test In contrast to our hypothesis there was no interaction between student expertise and model expertise all students who had studied the Expert examples performed better on the transfer test than students who had studied Advanced Student Examples

Conclusions This study suggests that when worked examples are based on actual performance rather than an ideal procedure expert models are to be preferred over advanced student models

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)557-566
Number of pages10
JournalBritish Journal of Educational Psychology
Volume80
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2010

Keywords

  • ACHIEVEMENT
  • COGNITIVE-LOAD APPROACH
  • EFFICIENCY
  • GUIDANCE
  • KNOWLEDGE ENCAPSULATION
  • ORIENTED WORKED EXAMPLES
  • PERFORMANCE
  • SELF-EFFICACY
  • SKILLS
  • STATISTICS

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