Objectives: For the empirical treatment of cystitis, clinicians are often guided by susceptibility data taken from urinary samples that sent to regional microbiological laboratories, which are not representatives for uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs). To offer adequate recommendations, the distribution and susceptibility pattern of uropathogens in uncomplicated UTIs in women were compared with those obtained 10 years ago in our uropathogen surveillance in a primary healthcare setting. Methods: Sixty-six general practitioners in the region of the city of Ghent were asked to inoculate a dipslide with midstream urine from every adult female patient with complaints suggestive for cystitis, during a period of 1 year. The dipslides were further processed in a central microbiological laboratory, where counting, identification and susceptibility testing were performed. Results: Three hundred specimens were collected, of which 187 (62.3%) yielded a positive culture of 10(5) cfu/mL. In the age group of 18-54 years, Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated uropathogen (77.5%), followed by Staphylococcus saprophyticus (13.5%) and Proteus spp. (2.7%). There were no statistically significant differences when compared with the data from 1996. In 2006, susceptibility of E. coli to nitrofurantoin was 100%, to quinolones 100%, to ampicillin 62.8% and to co-trimoxazole 86%, compared with 99.3%, 99.3%, 73.2% and 83.3%, respectively, in 1996 (no statistically significant differences). Conclusions: Over a period of 10 years, a systematic surveillance of uropathogens in female patients with uncomplicated UTI in general practice could not demonstrate a significant change in species distribution or antimicrobial susceptibility.