Evidence on the validity and reliability of the German, French and Italian nursing home version of the Basel Extent of Rationing of Nursing Care instrument

Franziska Zuniga*, Maria Schubert, Jan P. H. Hamers, Michael Simon, Rene Schwendimann, Sandra Engberg, Dietmar Ausserhofer

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Aim To develop and test psychometrically the Basel Extent of Rationing of Nursing Care for Nursing Homes instrument, providing initial evidence on the validity and reliability of the German, French and Italian-language versions. BackgroundIn the hospital setting, implicit rationing of nursing care is defined as the withholding of nursing activities due to lack of resources, such as staffing or time. No instrument existed to measure this concept in nursing homes. DesignCross-sectional study. MethodsWe developed the instrument in three phases: (1) adaption and translation; (2) content validity testing; and (3) initial validity and reliability testing. For phase 3, we analysed survey data from 4748 care workers collected between May 2012-April 2013 from a randomly selected sample of 162 nursing homes in the German-, French- and Italian-speaking regions of Switzerland to provide evidence from response processes (e.g. missing), internal structure (exploratory factor analysis), inter-item inconsistencies (e.g. Cronbach's alpha) and interscorer differences (e.g. within-group agreement). ResultsExploratory factor analysis revealed a four-factor structure with good fit statistics. Rationing of nursing care was structured in four domains: (1) activities of daily living; (2) caring, rehabilitation and monitoring; (3) documentation; and (4) social care. Items of the social care subscale showed lower content validity and more missing values than items of other subscales. ConclusionFirst evidence indicates that the new instrument can be recommended for research and practice to measure implicit rationing of nursing care in nursing homes. Further refinements of single items are needed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1948-1963
JournalJournal of Advanced Nursing
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2016


  • factor analysis
  • instrument development
  • nursing home care
  • psychometric testing
  • rationing

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