Evaluating corrected carotid flow time as a non-invasive parameter for trending cardiac output and stroke volume in cardiac surgery patients

Joris van Houte*, Anniek E Raaijmaakers, Frederik J Mooi, Loek P B Meijs, Esmée C de Boer, Irene Suriani, Saskia Houterman, Leon J Montenij, Arthur R Bouwman

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

1 Citation (Web of Science)


PURPOSE: The corrected carotid flow time (ccFT) is derived from a pulsed-wave Doppler signal at the common carotid artery. Several equations are currently used to calculate ccFT. Its ability to assess the intravascular volume status non-invasively has recently been investigated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation and trending ability of ccFT with invasive cardiac output (CO) and stroke volume (SV) measurements.

METHODS: Eighteen cardiac surgery patients were included in this prospective observational study. ccFT measurements were obtained at three time points: after induction of anesthesia (T1), after a passive leg raise (T2), and post-bypass (T3). Simultaneously, CO and SV were measured by calibrated pulse contour analysis. Three different equations (Bazett, Chambers, and Wodey) were used to calculate ccFT. The correlation and percentage change in time (concordance) between ccFT and CO and between ccFT and SV were evaluated.

RESULTS: Mean ccFT values differed significantly for the three equations (p < 0.001). The correlation between ccFT and CO and between ccFT and SV was highest for Bazett's (ρ = 0.43, p < 0.0001) and Wodey's (ρ = 0.33, p < 0.0001) equations, respectively. Concordance between ΔccFT and ΔCO and between ΔccFT and ΔSV was highest for Bazett's (100%) and Wodey's (82%) equations, respectively. Subgroup analysis demonstrated that correlation and concordance between SV and ccFT improved when assessed within limited heart rate (HR) ranges.

CONCLUSION: The use of different ccFT equations leads to variable correlation and concordance rates between ccFT and CO/SV measurements. Bazett's equation acceptably tracked CO changes in time, while the trending capability of SV was poor.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)89-97
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Ultrasound
Issue number1
Early online date9 Apr 2022
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2023


  • Cardiac output
  • Cardiac surgery
  • Carotid Doppler ultrasound
  • Corrected carotid flow time
  • Point of care ultrasound (POCUS)
  • Stroke volume

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