European Society of Cardiology Quality Indicators for the care and outcomes of cardiac pacing: developed by the Working Group for Cardiac Pacing Quality Indicators in collaboration with the European Heart Rhythm Association of the European Society of Cardiology

S. Aktaa*, A. Abdin, E. Arbelo, H. Burri, K. Vernooy, C. Blomstrom-Lundqvist, G. Boriani, P. Defaye, J.C. Deharo, I. Drossart, D. Foldager, M.R. Gold, J.B. Johansen, F. Leyva, C. Linde, Y. Michowitz, M.B. Kronborg, D. Slotwiner, T. Steen, J.M. TolosanaS. Tzeis, N. Varma, M. Glikson, J.C. Nielsen, C.P. Gale

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Aims To develop a suite of quality indicators (QIs) for the evaluation of the care and outcomes for adults undergoing cardiac pacing.Methods and results Under the auspice of the Clinical Practice Guideline Quality Indicator Committee of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC), the Working Group for cardiac pacing QIs was formed. The Group comprised Task Force members of the 2021 ESC Clinical Practice Guidelines on Cardiac Pacing and Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy, members of the European Heart Rhythm Association, international cardiac device experts, and patient representatives. We followed the ESC methodology for QI development, which involved (i) the identification of the key domains of care by constructing a conceptual framework of the management of patients receiving cardiac pacing, (ii) the development of candidate QIs by conducting a systematic review of the literature, (iii) the selection of the final set of QIs using a modified-Delphi method, and (iv) the evaluation of the feasibility of the developed QIs. Four domains of care were identified: (i) structural framework, (ii) patient assessment, (iii) pacing strategy, and (iv) clinical outcomes. In total, seven main and four secondary QIs were selected across these domains and were embedded within the 2021 ESC Guidelines on Cardiac Pacing and Cardiac Resynchronization therapy.Conclusion By way of a standardized process, 11 QIs for cardiac pacing were developed. These indicators may be used to quantify adherence to guideline-recommended clinical practice and have the potential to improve the care and outcomes of patients receiving cardiac pacemakers.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)165-172
Number of pages8
JournalEP Europace
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2022


  • Cardiac pacemaker
  • Clinical practice guidelines
  • Quality indicators

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