Endurance-Type Exercise Increases Bulk and Individual Mitochondrial Protein Synthesis Rates in Rats

Andrew M. Holwerda, Freek G. Bouwman, Miranda Nabben, Ping Wang, Janneau van Kranenburg, Annemie P. Gijsen, Jatin G. Burniston, Edwin C. M. Mariman, Luc J. C. van Loon*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Abstract

Physical activity increases muscle protein synthesis rates. However, the impact of exercise on the coordinated up- and/or downregulation of individual protein synthesis rates in skeletal muscle tissue remains unclear. The authors assessed the impact of exercise on mixed muscle, myofibrillar, and mitochondrial protein synthesis rates as well as individual protein synthesis rates in vivo in rats. Adult Lewis rats either remained sedentary (n = 3) or had access to a running wheel (n = 3) for the last 2 weeks of a 3-week experimental period. Deuterated water was injected and subsequently administered in drinking water over the experimental period. Blood and soleus muscle were collected and used to assess bulk mixed muscle, myofibrillar, and mitochondria' protein synthesis rates using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and individual muscle protein synthesis rates using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (i.e., dynamic proteomic profiling). Wheel running resulted in greater myofibrillar (3.94 +/- 0.26 vs. 3.03 +/- 0.15%/day; p<.01) and mitochondria' (4.64 +/- 0.24 vs. 3.97 +/- 0.26%/day; p <.05), but not mixed muscle (2.64 +/- 0.96 vs. 2.38 +/- 0.62%/day; p = .71) protein synthesis rates, when compared with the sedentary condition. Exercise impacted the synthesis rates of 80 proteins, with the difference from the sedentary condition ranging between -64% and +420%. Significantly greater synthesis rates were detected for F1-ATP synthase, ATP synthase subunit alpha, hemoglobin, myosin light chain-6, and synaptopodin-2 (p <.05). The skeletal muscle protein adaptive response to endurance-type exercise involves upregulation of mitochondria' protein synthesis rates, but it is highly coordinated as reflected by the up-and downregulation of various individual proteins across different bulk subcellular protein fractions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)153-164
Number of pages12
JournalInternational Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Volume30
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2020

Keywords

  • deuterium oxide
  • dynamic proteomic profiling
  • muscle
  • muscle protein synthesis
  • physical activity
  • MYOSIN HEAVY-CHAIN
  • SIGNALING MOLECULE PHOSPHORYLATION
  • HUMAN SKELETAL-MUSCLE
  • IN-VIVO
  • SARCOPLASMIC PROTEIN
  • RESISTANCE
  • MASS
  • RESTRICTION
  • MYOFIBRILLAR
  • INGESTION

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