Endoscopic appearance of proximal colorectal neoplasms and potential implications for colonoscopy in cancer prevention

E.J.A. Rondagh, M.W.E. Bouwens, R.G. Riedl, B. Winkens, R. de Ridder, T. Kaltenbach, R.M. Soetikno, A.A.M. Masclee, S. Sanduleanu

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: In everyday practice, the use of colonoscopy for the prevention of colorectal cancer (CRC) is less effective in the proximal than the distal colon. A potential explanation for this is that proximal neoplasms have a more subtle endoscopic appearance, making them more likely to be overlooked. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the differences in endoscopic appearance, ie, diminutive size and nonpolypoid shape, of proximal compared with distal colorectal neoplasms. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, single-center study. SETTING: Endoscopists at the Maastricht University Medical Center in the Netherlands who were previously trained in the detection and classification of nonpolypoid colorectal lesions. PATIENTS: Consecutive patients undergoing elective colonoscopy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Endoscopic appearance, ie, diminutive size (<6 mm) or nonpolypoid shape (height less than half of the diameter) of colorectal adenomas and serrated polyps (SPs), with a focus on adenomas with advanced histology, ie, high-grade dysplasia or early CRC and SPs with dysplasia or large size. RESULTS: We included 3720 consecutive patients with 2106 adenomas and 941 SPs. We found that in both men and women, proximal adenomas with high-grade dysplasia/early CRC (n = 181) were more likely to be diminutive or nonpolypoid than distal ones (76.3% vs 26.2%; odds ratio [OR] 9.24; 95% CI, 4.45-19.2; P < .001). Of the proximal adenomas, 84.4% were diminutive or nonpolypoid compared with 68.0% of the distal ones (OR 2.66; 95% CI, 2.14-3.29; P < .001). Likewise, large/dysplastic SPs in the proximal colon were more often nonpolypoid than distal ones (66.2% vs 27.8%; OR 5.51; 95% CI, 2.79-10.9; P < .001). LIMITATIONS: Inclusion of both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. CONCLUSIONS: Proximal colorectal neoplasms with advanced histology frequently are small or have a nonpolypoid appearance. These findings support careful inspection of the proximal colon, if quality of cancer prevention with the use of colonoscopy is to be optimized.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1218-1225
Number of pages8
JournalGastrointestinal Endoscopy
Volume75
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2012

Keywords

  • HIGH-GRADE DYSPLASIA
  • CLINICALLY IMPORTANT
  • HYPERPLASTIC POLYPS
  • NONPOLYPOID FLAT
  • SERRATED POLYPS
  • LONG-TERM
  • MISS RATE
  • ADENOMAS
  • RISK
  • QUALITY

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