Background: Progress tests (PT) are used to assess students on topics from all medical disciplines. Progress testing is usually one of the assessment methods of the cognitive domain. There is limited knowledge on how positioning of the PT in a program of assessment (PoA) influences students' PT scores, use of PT feedback and perceived learning value.Methods: We compared PT total scores and use of a PT test feedback (ProF) system in two medical courses, where the PT is either used as a summative assessment or embedded in a comprehensive PoA and used formatively. In addition, an interview study was used to explore the students' perception on use of PT feedback and perceived learning value.Results: PT total scores were higher, with considerable effect sizes (ESs) and students made more use of ProF when the PT was embedded in a comprehensive PoA. Analysis of feedback in the portfolio stimulated students to look for patterns in PT results, link the PT to other assessment results, follow-up on learning objectives, and integrate the PT in their learning for the entire PoA.Conclusions: Embedding the PT in an assessment program designed according to the principles of programmatic assessment positively affects PT total scores, use of PT feedback, and perceived learning value.