Elite incomes around the world: Command over tradables, non-tradables, and people

Paul Segal, Michail Moatsos

Research output: Working paper / PreprintWorking paper


This paper analyses elite incomes around the world, and how international comparisons of elite incomes vary depending on the exchange rate and income concept used. It is well known that between-country income inequality is higher using market exchange rates than purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates, due to a combination of traded sector bias and the Balassa-Samuelson effect, and we confirm that this is the case for comparing elite incomes across countries.
Original languageEnglish
PublisherUnited Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research
Number of pages17
Publication statusPublished - 23 Nov 2022

Publication series

SeriesUNU-WIDER Working Papers

JEL classifications

  • d31 - Personal Income, Wealth, and Their Distributions
  • d63 - Equity, Justice, Inequality, and Other Normative Criteria and Measurement


  • elites
  • income inequality
  • Balassa-Samuelson effect
  • PPP exchange rates
  • entitlements over labour


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