Objective: To examine in humans the effects on serum lipids, lipoproteins and fat-soluble antioxidants of a daily consumption of 2.5 g plant stanols, consumed either once per day at lunch or divided over the three meals. Design: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. Subjects: Thirty-nine healthy normocholesterolemic or mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects participated. Interventions: Each subject consumed in random order; no plant stanols; 2.5 g plant stanols at lunch; and 2.5 g plant stanols divided over the three meals (0.42g at breakfast, 0.84g at lunch and 1.25 g at dinner, which is proportional to dietary cholesterol intake). Each period lasted 4 weeks. Plant stanols were esterified with fatty acids from low erucic rapeseed oil (LEAR) and incorporated into margarines or shortenings. Results: Consumption of 2.5g plant stanols at lunch results in a similar low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol-lowering efficacy compared to consumption of 2.5 g plant stanols divided over the three meals (-0.29 mmol/l compared with the control period (P <0.001; 95% CI, -0.19 to -0.39 mmol/l) for the once per day diet and -0.31 mmol/l (P <0.001; 95% CI, -0.20 to -0.41mmol/l) for the three times per day period). High-density Lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations did not change. After standardization for LDL cholesterol, the sum of the most lipophylic hydrocarbon carotenoids (ie alpha-carotene, beta-carotene and lycopene) in particular was slightly, though not significantly, lowered by -0.017 +/- 0.018 mu mol/mmol LDL cholesterol (P = 0.307) after the once per day period and by -0.032 +/- 0.016 mu mol/mmol LDL cholesterol (P = 0.049) after the three times per day period. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that for lowering LDL cholesterol concentrations it is not necessary to consume products rich in plant stanol ester at each meal or simultaneously with dietary cholesterol.
Plat, J., van Onselen, E. N. M., van Heugten, M. M. A., & Mensink, R. P. (2000). Effects on serum lipids, lipoproteins and fat soluble antioxidant concentrations of consumption frequency of margarines and shortenings enriched with plant stanol esters. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 54(9), 671-677. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601071