It is suggested that the brain response of a food odour sensed retro-nasally is related to satiation. The extent of retro-nasal aroma release during consumption depends on the physical structure of a food, i.e. solid foods generate a longer, more pronounced retro-nasal aroma release than liquid foods. The aim of this study was to investigate if a beverage becomes more satiating when the retro-nasal aroma release profile coincides with the profile of a (soft) solid food. In a double-blind placebo-controlled randomised cross-over full factorial design, twenty-seven healthy subjects (fourteen males and thirteen females; aged 16-65 years; BMI 19-37 kg/m(2) were administered aroma profiles by a computer-controlled stimulator based on air dilution olfactometry. Profile A consisted of a profile that is obtained during consumption of normal beverages. Profile B is normally observed during consumption of (soft) solids. The two profiles were produced with strawberry aroma and administered in a retro-nasal fashion, while the subjects consumed a sweetened milk drink. Before, during and after the sensory stimulation, appetite profile measurements were performed. Subjects felt significantly more satiated if they were aroma stimulated with profile B (P = 0.04). After stimulation with sweet strawberry aroma, there was a significant decrease in desire to eat sweet products (P = 0.0001). In conclusion, perceived satiation was increased by altering the extent of retro-nasal aroma release.
Ruijschop, R. M., Boelrijk, A. E., de Ru, J. A., de Graaf, C., & Westerterp-Plantenga, M. S. (2008). Effects of retro-nasal aroma release on satiation. British Journal of Nutrition, 99(5), 1140-1148. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114507837482