Effects of osteoinduction on bone regeneration in distraction: Results of a pilot study

A. Kroczek, Daniel J. Park, Torsten Birkholz, F. W. Neukam, Joerg Wiltfang, P. Kessler*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Rate and frequency of distraction as well as stimulatory effects transmitted by growth factors and local gene therapy have a decisive influence on bone regeneration. In a pilot study we tested the effect of four different morphogenetic and mitotic proteins and a genetically transferred vector system on bone healing in continuous osteodistraction in a large animal experiment on 24 Goettingen mini-pigs. For this purpose bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-2), BMP-7, TGF-beta, IGF-1 and a liposome vector were instilled into the distraction gap. The animals were killed after 1-4 weeks of consolidation. Histological and radiological evaluations showed maximum bone formation after the application of BMP-2/7, whereas the application of TGF-beta, IGF-1 and the liposomal vector had only a limited effect on bone regeneration. The quantitative analysis demonstrated an average amount of bone in the distraction gap of 50% and 61% after instillation of BMP-2 and 7, respectively. The BMP-2 expression, however, was maximal after induction with the non-viral vector. Only after BMP-2/7 application could physical, radiographic and histological evidence of bone union be detected. In bone distraction with a short observation period the application of morphogenetic proteins seems to enhance bone regeneration significantly. Before application in humans further studies are necessary to measure the dose-effect relationship, the mode of application and the efficacy of different inductive proteins. The combination of osteodistraction with osteoinduction, however, could shorten treatment times dramatically.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)334-344
JournalJournal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2010


  • distraction
  • osteoinduction
  • gene therapy
  • bone regeneration


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