Effects of lutein-enriched egg yolk in buttermilk or skimmed milk on serum lipids & lipoproteins of mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects.

N. Severins, R.P. Mensink, J. Plat

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Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Earlier studies in our group suggested that traditionally prepared buttermilk influences cholesterol metabolism. We therefore designed a study to evaluate whether traditionally prepared buttermilk lowers serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and/or prevents the LDL-C raising effect of egg yolks. METHODS AND RESULTS: Mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects were randomly allocated to one of four diet groups consuming daily at lunch 80 ml skimmed milk with (n = 23) or without (n = 25) lutein-enriched egg yolk (28 g from 1.5 eggs providing 323 mg cholesterol) or traditionally prepared buttermilk with (n = 23) or without (n = 21) lutein-enriched egg yolk during a 12 week period. Fasting blood samples were taken to measure concentrations of serum lipids, (apo)lipoproteins, liver and kidney function markers, and plasma lutein, zeaxanthin and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP). Egg yolk consumption significantly increased serum total cholesterol (total-C) (p = 0.035) and LDL-C concentrations (p = 0.022). Buttermilk did not change the effects of egg yolk on serum lipids and (apo)lipoproteins. There was a trend towards significant lower total-C (p = 0.077), but not LDL-C (p = 0.204) concentrations in the buttermilk groups. Plasma lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations increased significantly (p < 0.001) in the egg yolk groups. CONCLUSION: In mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects, daily consumption of traditionally prepared buttermilk for 12 weeks did not lower serum total-C or LDL-C concentrations, nor did it prevent the serum total-C and LDL-C raising effect of daily egg yolk consumption. REGISTRATION NUMBER: This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01566305.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)210-217
Number of pages8
JournalNutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases
Volume25
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2015

Keywords

  • Buttermilk
  • Egg yolk
  • Cholesterol
  • Serum lipids
  • Milk polar lipids
  • Lutein
  • Zeaxanthin
  • INTESTINAL CHOLESTEROL ABSORPTION
  • LACTOBACILLUS-ACIDOPHILUS
  • ZEAXANTHIN CONCENTRATIONS
  • CARDIOVASCULAR-DISEASES
  • DIETARY-CHOLESTEROL
  • CONSUMPTION
  • MEN
  • CAROTENOIDS
  • METABOLISM
  • PLASMA

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