Effectiveness of a multicentre nasopharyngeal carcinoma awareness programme in Indonesia

R. Fles, S.R. Indrasari, C. Herdini, S. Martini, A. Isfandiari, A.C. Romdhoni, M. Adham, I.D. Mayangsari, E. van Werkhoven, M.A. Wildeman, B. Hariwiyanto, B. Hermani, W.A. Kentjono, S.M. Haryana, M.K. Schmidt*, Bing Tan

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) awareness programme on the short-term and long-term improvement of knowledge and referral of patients with NPC by primary healthcare centres (PHCCs) staff in Indonesia.

Design The NPC awareness programme consisted of 12 symposia including a Train-The-Trainer component, containing lectures about early symptoms and risk factors of NPC, practical examination and the referral system for NPC suspects. Before and after training participants completed a questionnaire. The Indonesian Doctors Association accredited all activities.

Participants 1 representative general practitioner (GP) from each PHCC attended an NPC awareness symposium. On the basis of the Train-The-Trainer principle, GPs received training material and were obligated to train their colleagues in the PHCC.

Results 703 GPs attended the symposia and trained 1349 staff members: 314 other GPs, 685 nurses and 350 midwives. After the training, respondents' average score regarding the knowledge of NPC symptoms increased from 47 points (of the 100) to 74 points (p

Conclusions The initial results of this NPC awareness programme indicate that the programme effectively increases NPC knowledge in the short and long term and therefore should be continued. Effects of the improved knowledge on the stage at diagnoses of the patients with NPC will still need to be scrutinised. This awareness programme can serve as a blueprint for other cancer types in Indonesia and for other developing countries.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere008571
Number of pages8
JournalBMJ Open
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2016


  • awareness
  • nasopharyngeal carcinoma
  • NPC

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