Effect of the interaction between diet composition and the PPM1K g enetic variant on insulin resistance and beta cell function markers during weight loss: results from the Nutrient Gene Interactions in Human Obesity: implications for dietary guidelines (NUGENOB) randomized trial

Leticia Goni, Lu Qi, Marta Cuervo, Fermin I. Milagro, Wim H. Saris, Ian A. MacDonald, Dominique Langin, Arne Astrup, Peter Arner, Jean-Michel Oppert, Mathilde Svendstrup, Ellen E. Blaak, Thorkild I. A. Sorensen, Torben Hansen, J. Alfredo Martinez*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Background: Circulating branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and aromatic amino acids (AAAs) have been shown to be associated with insulin resistance and diabetes risk. The common rs1440581 T allele in the protein phosphatase Mg2+/Mn2+dependent 1K (PPM1K) gene has been related to elevated BCAA concentrations and risk of type 2 diabetes.

Objective: In the present study, we tested whether dietary fat and carbohydrate intakes influenced the association between the rs1440581 PPM1K genetic variant and glucose-metabolism traits during weight loss.

Design: The rs1440581 PPM1K genetic variant was genotyped in a total of 757 nondiabetic individuals who were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 energy-restricted diets that differed in macronutrient composition (low-fat diet: 20-25% fat, 15% protein, and 60-65% carbohydrate; high-fat diet: 40-45% fat, 15% protein, and 40-45% carbohydrate). The changes in fasting glucose, fasting insulin, insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance) and homeostasis model assessment of beta cell function (HOMA-B) were measured after a mean +/- SD weight loss of 6.8 +/- 3.4 kg over 10 wk and analyzed according to the presence of the T allele of rs1440581.

Results: The rs1440581 T allele was associated with a smaller improvement in glucose concentrations after the 10-wk dietary intervention (beta +/- SE: 0.05 +/-.02 mg/dL; P = 0.03). In addition, significant gene-diet interactions were shown for the rs1440581 PPM1K genetic variant in relation to changes in insulin and HOMA-B (P-interaction = 0.006 and 0.002, respectively). In response to the high-fat diet, the T allele was associated with a higher reduction of insulin (beta +/- SE: -0.77 +/- 0.40 mu U/mL; P = 0.04) and HOMA-B (beta +/- SE: -13.2 +/- 3.81; P = 0.003). An opposite effect was observed in the low-fat diet group, although in this group the T allele was marginally (P = 0.10) and not significantly (P = 0.24) associated with insulin and HOMA-B, respectively.

Conclusion: PPM1K rs1440581 may affect changes in glucose metabolism during weight loss, and this effect is dependent on dietary fat and carbohydrate intakes. This trial was registered at controlled-trials. com as ISRCTN25867281.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)902-908
Number of pages7
JournalAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2017


  • gene-diet interaction
  • glucose concentrations
  • obesity
  • weight
  • MICE

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