Background and Purpose: Inhibition of the G-protein gated ACh-activated inward rectifier potassium current, I-K,I-ACh may be an effective atrial selective treatment strategy for atrial fibrillation (AF). Therefore, the anti-arrhythmic and electrophysiological properties of a novel putatively potent and highly specificI(K,ACh)inhibitor, XAF-1407 (3-methyl-1-[5-phenyl-4-[4-(2-pyrrolidin-1-ylethoxymethyl)-1-piperidyl]thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidin-6-yl]azetidin-3-ol), were characterised for the first time in vitro and investigated in horses with persistent AF.
Experimental Approach: The pharmacological ion channel profile of XAF-1407 was investigated using cell lines expressing relevant ion channels. In addition, eleven horses were implanted with implantable cardioverter defibrillators enabling atrial tachypacing into self-sustained AF. The electrophysiological effects of XAF-1407 were investigated after serial cardioversions over a period of 1 month. Cardioversion success, drug-induced changes of atrial tissue refractoriness, and ventricular electrophysiology were assessed at baseline (day 0) and days 3, 5, 11, 17, and 29 after AF induction.
Key Results: XAF-1407 potently and selectively inhibited K(ir)3.1/3.4 and K(ir)3.4/3.4, underlying theI(K,ACh)current. XAF-1407 treatment in horses prolonged atrial effective refractory period as well as decreased atrial fibrillatory rate significantly (similar to 20%) and successfully cardioverted AF, although with a decreasing efficacy over time. XAF-1407 shortened atrioventricular-nodal refractoriness, without effect on QRS duration. QTc prolongation (4%) within 15 min of drug infusion was observed, however, without any evidence of ventricular arrhythmia.
Conclusion and Implications: XAF-1407 efficiently cardioverted sustained tachypacing-induced AF of short duration in horses without notable side effects. This supportsI(K,ACh)inhibition as a potentially safe treatment of paroxysmal AF in horses, suggesting potential clinical value for other species including humans.
- POTASSIUM CHANNELS
- IKACH BLOCKER
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