The prevalence of antibiotic resistant Enterococcus faecalis was determined in fecal samples of 263 patients admitted to the surgical wards of three university-affiliated hospitals on admission, at discharge, and at 1 and 6 months after discharge. A slight increase in the prevalence of antibiotic resistance of E. faecalis was found at discharge for the antibiotics tested compared to those on admission, vancomycin excepted. At 6 months after discharge, the prevalence of resistance for amoxicillin (0%), ciprofloxacin (3%), erythromycin (47%), and oxytetracycline (60%) decreased to the level on admission (respectively 0%, 8%, 45%, and 64%). Gentamicin resistance was the same at discharge (10%) as 1 month later (12%), but decreased 6 months after discharge (8%) to the level on admission (7%). In conclusion, hospitalization resulted in the study population in a slight increase in the prevalence of resistant fecal E. faecalis isolates at discharge, which decreased again (slowly) to the level on admission 6 months after discharge. Thus, the influence of hospitalization on the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in the extramural situation disappears between 1 and 6 months after discharge in this population.