Effect of chronic hypoxia on RAGE and its soluble forms in lungs and plasma of mice

P. Gopal, H.R. Gosker, C.C. de Theije, Irene Eurlings, D.R. Sell, V.M. Monnier, N.L. Reynaert*

*Corresponding author for this work

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The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a multi-ligand receptor. Alternative splicing and enzymatic shedding produce soluble forms that protect against damage by ligands including Advanced Glycation End products (AGEs). A link between RAGE and oxygen levels is evident from studies showing RAGE-mediated injury following hyperoxia. The effect of hypoxia on pulmonary RAGE expression and circulating sRAGE levels is however unknown. Therefore mice were exposed to chronic hypoxia for 21d and expression of RAGE, sheddases in lungs and circulating sRAGE were determined. In addition, accumulation of AGEs in lungs and expression of the AGE detoxifying enzyme GLO1 and receptors were evaluated. In lung tissue gene expression of total RAGE, variants 1 and 3 were elevated in mice exposed to hypoxia, whereas mRAGE and sRAGE protein levels were decreased. In the hypoxic group plasma sRAGE levels were enhanced. Although the levels of pro-ADAM10 were elevated in lungs of hypoxia exposed mice, the relative amount of the active form was decreased and gelatinase activity unaffected. In the lungs, the RAGE ligand HMGB1 was decreased and of the AGEs, only LW-1 was increased by chronic hypoxia. Gene expression of AGE receptors 2 and 3 was significantly upregulated. Chronic hypoxia is associated with downregulation of pulmonary RAGE protein levels, but a relative increase in sRAGE. These alterations might be part of the adaptive and protective response mechanism to chronic hypoxia and are not associated with AGE formation except for the fluorophore LW-1 which emerges as a novel marker of tissue hypoxia.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)992-1000
Number of pages9
JournalBiochimica et Biophysica Acta-Molecular Basis of Disease
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2015


  • Hypoxia
  • RAGE expression
  • Shedding
  • AGES
  • Detoxification
  • VEGF-D


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