Effect of Camel Milk on Glucose Homeostasis in Patients with Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

R. AlKurd, N. Hanash, N. Khalid, D.N. Abdelrahim, M.A.B. Khan, L. Mahrous, H. Radwan, F. Naja, M. Madkour, K. Obaideen, K. Abu Shihab, M. Faris*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journal(Systematic) Review article peer-review


The effects of camel milk (CM) intake on glycemic control in patients with diabetes are controversial. This systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to summarize the effect of CM intake on glucose homeostasis parameters in patients with both types of diabetes mellitus; T1DM and T2DM. We searched Google Scholar, PubMed/MEDLINE, EBSCO host, CINAHL, ScienceDirect, Cochrane, ProQuest Medical, Web of Science, and Scopus databases from inception until the end of November 2021. Relevant RCTs were identified, and the effect size was reported as mean difference (MD) and standard deviation (SD). Parameters of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting blood glucose (FBG), postprandial blood glucose (PBG), fasting serum insulin (FI), insulin resistance (expressed in terms of HOMA-IR), insulin dose (ID) received, serum insulin antibody (IA), and C-peptide (CP) were tested. Out of 4054 collected articles, 14 RCTs (total 663 subjects) were eligible for inclusion. The pooled results obtained using a random-effects model showed a statistically significant decrease in HbA1c levels (MD, -1.24, 95% confidence interval (CI): -2.00, -0.48, p < 0.001 heterogeneity (I-2) = 94%) and ID received (MD, -16.72, 95% CI: -22.09, -11.35 p < 0.00001, I-2 = 90%), with a clear tendency was shown, but non-significant, to decrease FBG (MD, -23.32, 95% CI: -47.33, 0.70, p = 0.06, I-2 = 98%) in patients with diabetes who consumed CM in comparison to those on usual care. Conversely, the consumption of CM did not show significant reductions in the rest of the glucose homeostasis parameters. Subgroup analysis revealed that patients with T2DM were more beneficially affected by CM intake than those with T1DM in lowering FBG, while patients with T1DM were more beneficially affected by CM intake than those with T2DM in lowering HbA1c. Both fresh and treated (pasteurized/fermented) CM gave similar beneficial effects in lowering HbA1c. Lastly, a relatively superior effect for longer duration on shorter duration (>6 months, <= 6 months, respectively) of CM intake is found in lowering HbA1c. To conclude, long-term consumption of CM by patients with diabetes could be a useful adjuvant therapy alongside classical medications, especially in lowering the required insulin dose and HbA1c. Due to the high heterogeneity observed in the included studies, more controlled trials with a larger sample size are warranted to confirm our results and to control some confounders and interfering factors existing in the analyzed articles.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1245
Number of pages25
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2022


  • Arabian camel
  • Camelus dromedaries
  • complementary and alternative medicine (CAM)
  • glucometabolic parameters
  • glycemic control
  • insulin resistance

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