Background and Aims Since high-density lipoprotein (HDL) has pro-endothelial and anti-thrombotic effects, a HDL recruiting stent may prevent restenosis. In the present study we address the functional characteristics of an apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) antibody coating in vitro. Subsequently, we tested its biological performance applied on stents in vivo in rabbits. Materials and Methods The impact of anti ApoA-I-versus apoB-antibody coated stainless steel discs were evaluated in vitro for endothelial cell adhesion, thrombin generation and platelet adhesion. In vivo, response to injury in the iliac artery of New Zealand white rabbits was used as read out comparing apoA-I-coated versus bare metal stents. Results ApoA-I antibody coated metal discs showed increased endothelial cell adhesion and proliferation and decreased thrombin generation and platelet adhesion, compared to control discs. In vivo, no difference was observed between ApoA-I and BMS stents in lumen stenosis (23.3 +/- 13.8% versus 23.3 +/- 11.3%, p=0.77) or intima surface area (0.81 +/- 0.62 mm(2) vs 0.84 +/- 0.55 mm(2), p=0.85). Immunohistochemistry also revealed no differences in cell proliferation, fibrin deposition, inflammation and endothelialization. Conclusion ApoA-I antibody coating has potent pro-endothelial and anti-thrombotic effects in vitro, but failed to enhance stent performance in a balloon injury rabbit model in vivo.