This study explains early school-leaving in lower secondary education in the netherlands, taking into account background characteristics, family resources and school composition factors at the same time. We distinguish four groups of school-leavers: ‘dropouts’ (those without any qualification), those who leave school with a diploma in lower secondary education (‘low qualified’), those who complete apprentice-based tracks (‘apprentices’) and those who continue education and receive a full upper secondary qualification (‘full qualification’). The breakdown into these four groups reveals clear differences in the effects of different factors on the risk of early school-leaving.
Traag, T., & van der Velden, R. K. W. (2011). Early school-leaving in the Netherlands: The role of family resources, school composition and background characteristics in early school-leaving in lower secondary education. Irish Educational Studies, 30(1), 45-62. https://doi.org/10.1080/03323315.2011.535975