Early Implementation of a Patient-Centered Medical Home in Singapore: A Qualitative Study Using Theory on Diffusion of Innovations

Z.Z.B. Lim*, M.M. Kadir, M.L. Ginting, H.J.M. Vrijhoef, J. Yoong, C.H. Wong

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

1 Citation (Web of Science)

Abstract

Patient-Centered Medical Home (PCMH) has been found to improve care for complex needs patients in some countries but has not yet been widely adopted in Singapore. This study explored the ground-up implementation of a PCMH in Singapore by describing change strategies and unpacking initial experience and perception. In-depth interviews were conducted for twenty-two key informants from three groups: the implementers, their implementation partners, and other providers. "Diffusion of innovations " emerged as an overarching theory to contextualize PCMH in its early implementation. Three core "innovations " differentiated the PCMH from usual primary care: (i) team-based and integrated care; (ii) empanelment; and (iii) shared care with other general practitioners. Change strategies employed to implement these innovations included repurposing pre-existing resources, building a partnership to create supporting infrastructure and pathways in the delivery system, and doing targeted outreach to introduce the PCMH. Initial experience and perception were characterized by processes to "adopt " and "assimilate " the innovations, which were identified as challenging due to less predictable, self-organizing behaviors by multiple players. To work with the inherent complexity and novelty of the innovations, time, leadership, standardized methods, direct communication, and awareness-building efforts are needed. This study was retrospectively registered (Protocol ID: NCT04594967).</p>
Original languageEnglish
Article number11160
Number of pages20
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Volume18
Issue number21
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2021

Keywords

  • Patient-Centered Medical Home
  • primary care
  • innovation
  • implementation
  • complex needs
  • adoption
  • assimilation
  • PRIMARY-CARE
  • HEALTH-CARE
  • COMPLEXITY SCIENCE
  • PRACTICE REDESIGN
  • TRANSFORMATION
  • SERVICES
  • STRATEGIES
  • COMMUNITY
  • TYPOLOGY
  • NEEDS

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