Dutch Tariff for the Five-Level Version of EQ-5D

Matthijs M. Versteegh*, Karin M. Vermeulen, Silvia M. A. A. Evers, G. Ardine de Wit, Rilana Prenger, Elly A. Stolk

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Background: In 2009, a new version of the EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D) was introduced with five rather than three answer levels per dimension. This instrument is known as the EQ-5D-5L. To make the EQ-5D-5L suitable for use in economic evaluations, societal values need to be attached to all 3125 health states. Objectives: To derive a Dutch tariff for the EQ-5D-5L. Methods: Health state values were elicited during face-to-face interviews in a general population sample stratified for age, sex, and education, using composite time trade-off (cTTO) and a discrete choice experiment (DCE). Data were modeled using ordinary least squares and tobit regression (for cTTO) and a multinomial conditional logit model (for DCE). Model performance was evaluated on the basis of internal consistency, parsimony, goodness of fit, handling of left-censored values, and theoretical considerations. Results: A representative sample (N = 1003) of the Dutch population participated in the valuation study. Data of 979 and 992 respondents were included in the analysis of the cTTO and the DCE, respectively. The cTTO data were left-censored at -1. The tobit model was considered the preferred model for the tariff on the basis of its handling of the censored nature of the data, which was confirmed through comparison with the DCE data. The predicted values for the EQ-5D-5L ranged from -0.446 to 1. Conclusions: This study established a Dutch tariff for the EQ-5D-5L on the basis of cTTO. The values represent the preferences of the Dutch population. The tariff can be used to estimate the impact of health care interventions on quality of life, for example, in context of economic evaluations.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)343-352
JournalValue in Health
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2016


  • utility measurement
  • discrete choice experiment
  • EQ-5D-5L
  • time trade-off


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