Dietary protein plays a role in body weight regulation, partly because of its effects on appetite. The objective was to compare the effects of high or normal casein-, soy-, or whey-protein breakfasts on appetite, specific hormones, amino acid responses and subsequent energy intake. Twenty-five healthy subjects (mean+/-SEMBMI:23.9+/-0.3 kg/m2; age:22+/-1 years) received standardized breakfasts: custards with either casein-, soy, or whey-protein with either 10/55/35 (normal) or 25/55/20 (high)En% protein/carbohydrate/fat in a randomized, single-blind design. Appetite profile (Visual Analogue Scales) and amino acid concentrations were determined for 4 h whereas plasma glucose, insulin, active Glucagon-like Peptide 1 (GLP-1), and active ghrelin concentrations were determined for 3 h; the sensitive moment for lunch was determined. Subjects returned for a second set of experiments and received the same breakfasts, ad lib lunch was offered 180 min later; energy intake (EI) was assessed. At 10En%, whey decreased hunger more than casein or soy (p <0.05), coinciding with higher leucine, lysine, tryptophan, isoleucine, and threonine responses (p<0.05). At 25En% there were no differences in appetite ratings. Whey triggered the strongest responses in concentrations of active GLP-1 (p<0.05) and insulin (p<0.05) compared with casein and/or soy. There were no differences in EI. In conclusion, differences in appetite ratings between different proteins appeared at a normal concentration; at 10En% whey-protein decreased hunger more than casein- or soy-protein. At 25En% whey-protein triggered stronger responses in hormone concentrations than casein- or soy-protein. The results suggest that a difference in appetite ratings between types of protein appears when certain amino acids are above and below particular threshold values.
Veldhorst, M. A., Nieuwenhuizen, A. G., Hochstenbach-Waelen, A., van Vught, A. J., Westerterp, K. R., Engelen, M. P., Brummer, R. J. M., Deutz, N. E., & Westerterp-Plantenga, M. S. (2009). Dose-dependent satiating effect of whey relative to casein or soy. Physiology & Behavior, 96(4-5), 675-82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2009.01.004