BACKGROUND: A minority of patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) experience a persistent symptom complex also known as post-concussion syndrome. Explanations for this syndrome are still lacking.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate if the fear avoidance model, including catastrophizing thoughts and fear avoidance behaviour, poses a possible biopsychosocial explanation for lingering symptoms and delay in recovery after traumatic brain injury (TBI) with special focus on mTBI.
DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.
PARTICIPANTS: 48 patients with TBI, of which 31 patients with mTBI, had persistent symptoms (mean time since injury 48.2 months); 92% of the entire sample fulfilled the criteria for post-concussion syndrome.
OUTCOME VARIABLES: catastrophizing, fear-avoidance, depression and post-concussion symptoms.
RESULTS: High levels of catastrophizing were found in 10% and high levels of fear avoidance behaviour were found in 35%. Catastrophizing, fear avoidance behaviour, depressive symptoms and post-concussion symptoms correlated significantly with each other (p < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: The fear-avoidance model proposes a possible explanation for persistent symptoms. Validation and normative data are needed for suitable measures of catastrophizing and fear avoidance of post-concussion symptoms after TBI. Longitudinal prospective cohort studies are needed to establish its causal and explanatory nature.
|Number of pages||8|
|Early online date||5 Oct 2017|
|Publication status||Published - Oct 2017|
- Journal Article
- MUSCULOSKELETAL PAIN
- Traumatic brain injury
- DEPRESSION SCALE
- CONCUSSION SYMPTOMS
- chronic phase
- HOSPITAL ANXIETY
- POSTCONCUSSIVE SYMPTOMS
- CHRONIC TINNITUS
- PAIN CATASTROPHIZING SCALE
- fear avoidance behaviour
- post concussional syndrome
- persistent symptoms