Does the Amount of Fat Mass Predict Age-Related Loss of Lean Mass, Muscle Strength, and Muscle Quality in Older Adults?

Annemarie Koster*, Jingzhong Ding, Sari Stenholm, Paolo Caserotti, Denise K. Houston, Barbara J Nicklas, Tongjian You, Jung Sun Lee, Marjolein Visser, Anne B Newman, Ann V. Schwartz, Jane A. Cauley, Frances A. Tylavsky, Bret H. Goodpaster, Stephen B Kritchevsky, Tamara B. Harris

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Abstract

Background. An excessive amount of adipose tissue may contribute to sarcopenia and may be one mechanism underlying accelerated loss of muscle mass and strength with aging. We therefore examined the association of baseline total body fat with changes in leg lean mass, muscle strength, and muscle quality over 7 years of follow-up and whether this link was explained by adipocytokines and insulin resistance. Methods. Data were from 2,307 men and women, aged 70-79 years, participating in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition study. Total fat mass was acquired from dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Leg lean mass was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in Years 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8. Knee extension strength was measured by isokinetic dynamometer in Years 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8. Muscle quality was calculated as muscle strength divided by leg lean mass. Results. Every SD greater fat mass was related to 1.3 kg more leg lean mass at baseline in men and 1.5 kg in women (p <.01). Greater fat mass was also associated with a greater decline in leg lean mass in both men and women (0.02 kg/year, p <.01), which was not explained by higher levels of adipocytokines and insulin resistance. Larger fat mass was related to significantly greater muscle strength but significantly lower muscle quality at baseline (p <.01). No significant differences in decline of muscle strength and quality were found. Conclusions. High fatness was associated with lower muscle quality, and it predicts accelerated loss of lean mass. Prevention of greater fatness in old age may decrease the loss of lean mass and maintain muscle quality and thereby reducing disability and mobility impairments.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)888-895
JournalJournals of Gerontology Series A-Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Volume66
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2011

Keywords

  • Adipose tissue
  • Muscle mass
  • Muscle strength
  • Obesity
  • Aging

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