Does Age Make a Difference? Age as Moderator in the Association Between Time Perspective and Happiness

Marianne Simons*, Sanne Peeters, Mayke Janssens, Johan Lataster, Nele Jacobs

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


A balanced time perspective can help retaining or improving happiness. Research shows shifts in time perspective while ageing. In order to reach a better understanding of the value of time perspective in different age groups, results are reported of a survey (n = 525), which examines the moderating role of age in the association between time perspective and happiness. Time perspective was measured by the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI) (Zimbardo and Boyd in J Personal Soc Psychol 77:1271-1288, 1999) and to measure happiness, the Subjective Happiness Scale of Lyubomirsky and Lepper (Soc Indic Res 46:137-155, 1999) was used. Regression analysis shows that time perspective is indeed associated with happiness and that, although the assumed shifts in time perspective over time were not found, age does act as a moderator of this association. With ageing, the negative association between a past-negative time perspective and happiness weakens. These results add to our understanding of the theoretical concept of time perspective and shed new light on the value of a balanced time perspective for someone's wellbeing. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)57-67
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Happiness Studies
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2018


  • Time perspective
  • Happiness
  • Well-being
  • Age
  • Ageing
  • LIFE
  • OLD

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