Do Developing Countries Have a Say? Bilateral and Regional Intellectual Property Negotiations with the EU: Bilateral and regional intellectual property negotiations with the EU

Anke Moerland*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Bilateral and regional agreements concluded with the European Union (EU) and the United States are extensive and include high levels of IP protection and enforcement standards. Such protection is crucial to enhance their competitiveness, but it does not seem to be a priority for developing countries (DCs). This paper analyses how DCs should best address trade negotiations in which high standards of IP protection and enforcement are sought and few balancing (safeguard and flexibility) provisions, or such that can stimulate technology transfer, are on offer. The Max Planck Institute for Innovation and Competition’s “Principles for Intellectual Property Provisions in Bilateral and Regional Agreements” cover many issues that are worth discussing as to how these can be incorporated in the negotiating process. Data collected from the CARIFORUM region when negotiating the EU-CARIFORUM Economic Partnership Agreement reconfirm the Principles’ main recommendations; so do the experiences from India, Central American countries, Colombia and Peru in negotiations with the EU. The argument made here, however, is that a crucial factor in achieving more favourable outcomes for DCs is through an increase of their bargaining power. It will be examined what structural factors influence bargaining power and how this impacts the use of negotiating strategies.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)760-783
Number of pages24
JournalIIC - International Review of Intellectual Property and Competition Law
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2017


  • The Caribbean
  • Developing countries
  • European Union
  • Regionalism
  • TRIPS-plus

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