Diurnal Variation of Markers for Cholesterol Synthesis, Cholesterol Absorption, and Bile Acid Synthesis: A Systematic Review and the Bispebjerg Study of Diurnal Variations

Maite M. Schroor, Henriette P. Sennels, Jan Fahrenkrug, Henrik L. Jorgensen, Jogchum Plat*, Ronald P. Mensink

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

8 Citations (Web of Science)

Abstract

Human studies have shown diurnal rhythms of cholesterol and bile acid synthesis, but a better understanding of the role of the circadian system in cholesterol homeostasis is needed for the development of targeted interventions to improve metabolic health. Therefore, we performed a systematic literature search on the diurnal rhythms of cholesterol synthesis and absorption markers and of bile acid synthesis markers. We also examined the diurnal rhythms of the cholesterol synthesis markers lathosterol and desmosterol, and of the cholesterol absorption markers cholestanol, campesterol, and sitosterol in serum samples from the Bispebjerg study. These samples were collected every three hours over a 24-h period in healthy males (n = 24) who consumed low-fat meals. The systematic search identified sixteen papers that had examined the diurnal rhythms of the cholesterol synthesis markers lathosterol (n = 3), mevalonate (n = 9), squalene (n = 2), or the bile acid synthesis marker 7 alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (C4) (n = 4). Results showed that lathosterol, mevalonate, and squalene had a diurnal rhythm with nocturnal peaks, while C4 had a diurnal rhythm with daytime peaks. Furthermore, cosinor analyses of the serum samples showed a significant diurnal rhythm for lathosterol (cosinor p <0.001), but not for desmosterol, campesterol, sitosterol, and cholestanol (cosinor p > 0.05). In conclusion, cholesterol synthesis and bile acid synthesis have a diurnal rhythm, though no evidence for a diurnal rhythm of cholesterol absorption was found under highly standardised conditions. More work is needed to further explore the influence of external factors on the diurnal rhythms regulating cholesterol homeostasis.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1439
Number of pages21
JournalNutrients
Volume11
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2019

Keywords

  • circadian system
  • diurnal rhythms
  • cholesterol synthesis
  • cholesterol absorption
  • bile acid synthesis
  • DENSITY-LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL
  • ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEINS
  • HEALTHY-YOUNG MALES
  • HMG-COA REDUCTASE
  • MEVALONIC ACID
  • CIRCADIAN-RHYTHM
  • DIETARY-CHOLESTEROL
  • PLASMA MEVALONATE
  • SERUM CONCENTRATIONS
  • DEUTERIUM UPTAKE

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