Distinct fecal and oral microbiota composition in human type 1 diabetes, an observational study

Pieter F. de Groot*, Clara Belzer, Omrum Aydin, Evgeni Levin, Johannes H. Levels, Steven Aalvink, Fransje Boot, Frits Holleman, Daniel H. van Raalte, Torsten P. Scheithauer, Suat Simsek, Frank G. Schaap, Steven W. M. Olde Damink, Bart O. Roep, Joost B. Hoekstra, Willem M. de Vos, Max Nieuwdorp*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Abstract

Objective

Environmental factors driving the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D) are still largely unknown. Both animal and human studies have shown an association between altered fecal microbiota composition, impaired production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and T1D onset. However, observational evidence on SCFA and fecal and oral microbiota in adults with longstanding T1D vs healthy controls (HC) is lacking.

Research design and methods

We included 53 T1D patients without complications or medication and 50 HC matched for age, sex and BMI. Oral and fecal microbiota, fecal and plasma SCFA levels, markers of intestinal inflammation (fecal IgA and calprotectin) and markers of low-grade systemic inflammation were measured.

Results

Oral microbiota were markedly different in T1D (eg abundance of Streptococci) compared to HC. Fecal analysis showed decreased butyrate producing species in T1D and less butyryl-CoA transferase genes. Also, plasma levels of acetate and propionate were lower in T1D, with similar fecal SCFA. Finally, fecal strains Christensenella and Subdoligranulum correlated with glycemic control, inflammatory parameters and SCFA.

Conclusions

We conclude that T1D patients harbor a different amount of intestinal SCFA (butyrate) producers and different plasma acetate and propionate levels. Future research should disentangle cause and effect and whether supplementation of SCFA-producing bacteria or SCFA alone can have disease-modifying effects in T1D.

Original languageEnglish
Article number0188475
Number of pages14
JournalPLOS ONE
Volume12
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 6 Dec 2017

Keywords

  • CHAIN FATTY-ACIDS
  • ANTIISLET CELL AUTOIMMUNITY
  • GUT MICROBIOME
  • CHILDREN
  • SUSCEPTIBILITY
  • CONTRIBUTES
  • SELECTION
  • BACTERIA
  • MELLITUS
  • DISEASES

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