Differences in aromatic-DNA adduct levels between alveolar macrophages and subpopulations of white blood cells from smokers.

R.W.L. Godschalk, L.M. Maas, N. van Zandwijk, C. van 't Veer, P.J.A. Borm, J. Verhaert, J.C.S. Kleinjans, F.J. van Schooten

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Abstract

Department of Health Risk Analysis and Toxicology, Maastricht University, The Netherlands.

The 32P-post-labelling assay for DNA adduct quantification gives the opportunity to examine endogenous exposure to DNA reactive compounds. Most human biomonitoring studies applied white blood cells (WBC) or cells obtained by broncho-alveolar lavages (BAL) as source of DNA, but still it is not clear what cell type represents the most reliable indicator for exposure to cigarette smoke-associated genotoxins. At first, we examined DNA adduct levels by means of nuclease P1 (NP1) enriched 32P-post-labelling in separated WBC subpopulations after in vitro incubations for 18 h with 10 microM benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). DNA adduct levels were highest in monocytes (10.7 +/- 2.9 adducts/10(8) nucleotides, n = 8), followed by lymphocytes (5.9 +/- 1.7, n = 8), and granulocytes (0.5 +/- 0.2, n = 8). Secondly, aromatic-DNA adduct levels were determined in BAL cells and WBC-subsets from (non-)smoking volunteers. In smoking individuals, adduct levels were in the ranking order: BAL cells (3.7 +/- 1.0, n = 5) > monocytes (2.0 +/- 0.5, n = 8) > or = lymphocytes (1.6 +/- 0.4, n = 8) > granulocytes (0.8 +/- 0.2, n = 8) by NP1-enrichment and monocytes (9.0 +/- 3.2, n = 5) > or = lymphocytes (8.0 +/- 2.1, n = 6) > granulocytes (2.1 +/- 0.3, n = 7) by butanol-enriched 32P-post-labelling. Aromatic-DNA adduct levels were significantly higher in WBC-subsets of smokers as compared with non-smokers, except for DNA adducts in granulocytes using butanol enrichment. Thirdly, dose-response relationships were investigated in mononuclear white blood cells (MNC, i.e. monocytes plus lymphocytes) and BAL-cells of a larger group of smoking individuals (n = 78). Adduct levels in MNC were related to daily exposure to cigarette-tar (r = 0.31, P < 0.01). Adduct levels in BAL cells seemed to be correlated with pack-years, but after correction for age this relationship was lost. Butanol extraction resulted in 5-6-fold higher DNA adduct levels in MNC, whereas butanol extraction of BAL-DNA of the same individuals yielded only 2-fold higher adduct levels. The two enrichment procedures of 32P-post-labelling were correlated in BAL cells (r = 0.86, P < 0.001, n = 12). We conclude that particularly MNC are good surrogates for the detection of smoking-related DNA adducts.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)819-825
Number of pages7
JournalCarcinogenesis
Volume19
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 1998

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