The incidence of CHD is still increasing, which underscores the need for new preventive and therapeutic approaches to decrease CHD risk. In this respect, increasing apoA-I concentrations may be a promising approach, especially through increasing apoA-I synthesis. This review first provides insight into current knowledge on apoA-I production, clearance, and degradation, followed by a systematic review of dietary and novel pharmacological approaches to target apoA-I metabolism. For this, a systematic search was performed to identify randomized controlled intervention studies that examined effects of whole foods and (non) nutrients on apoA-I metabolism. In addition, novel pharmacological approaches were searched for, which were specifically developed to target apoA-I metabolism. We conclude that both dietary components and pharmacological approaches can be used to increase apoA-I concentrations or functionality. For the dietary components in particular, more knowledge about the underlying mechanisms is necessary, as increasing apoA-I per se does not necessarily translate into a reduced CHD risk.
- RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED-TRIAL
- POLYUNSATURATED FATTY-ACIDS
- REVERSE CHOLESTEROL TRANSPORT
- PLACEBO-CONTROLLED TRIAL
- MILDLY HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIC SUBJECTS
- FAMILIAL COMBINED HYPERLIPIDEMIA
- FISH-OIL SUPPLEMENTATION