Dietary plant stanol esters reduce VLDL cholesterol secretion and bile saturation in apolipoprotein E*3-Leiden transgenic mice.

O.L. Volger, E.C.M. Wit de, W. Duyvenvoorde van, G. Hornstra, J. Plat, L.M. Havekes, R.P. Mensink, H.M.G. Princen

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Abstract

: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2001 Jun;21(6):1046-52 Related Articles, Books, LinkOut


Dietary plant stanol esters reduce VLDL cholesterol secretion and bile saturation in apolipoprotein E*3-Leiden transgenic mice.

Volger OL, van der Boom H, de Wit EC, van Duyvenvoorde W, Hornstra G, Plat J, Havekes LM, Mensink RP, Princen HM.

TNO Prevention and Health, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Dietary plant stanols lower serum cholesterol levels in humans and in hyperlipidemic rodents, mainly by inhibition of the intestinal cholesterol absorption. We used female apolipoprotein E*3-Leiden transgenic mice to investigate the consequences of this effect on serum lipid levels and hepatic lipid metabolism. Five groups of 6 or 7 mice received for 9 weeks a diet containing 0.25% cholesterol and 0.0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75%, or 1.0% (wt/wt) plant stanols (sitostanol 88% [wt/wt], campestanol 10% [wt/wt]) esterified to fatty acids. Compared with the control diet, plant stanol ester treatment dose-dependently reduced serum cholesterol levels by 10% to 33% (P<0.05), mainly in very low density lipoproteins (VLDLs), intermediate density lipoproteins, and low density lipoproteins. Furthermore, 1.0% of the dietary plant stanols significantly decreased the liver contents of cholesteryl esters (-62%), free cholesterol (-31%), and triglycerides (-38%) but did not change the hepatic VLDL-triglyceride and VLDL-apolipoprotein B production rates. However, plant stanol ester feeding significantly decreased the amounts of cholesteryl esters and free cholesterol incorporated in nascent VLDLs by 72% and 30%, respectively, resulting in a net 2-fold decreased VLDL cholesterol output. Liver mRNA levels of low density lipoprotein receptors, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A synthase, cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase, and sterol 27-hydroxylase were not changed by plant stanol ester feeding. Nevertheless, the serum lathosterol-to-cholesterol ratio was significantly increased by 23%, indicating that dietary plant stanol esters increased whole-body cholesterol synthesis. Plant stanol esters also significantly decreased the cholesterol saturation index in bile by 55%. In conclusion, in apolipoprotein E*3-Leiden transgenic mice, plant stanol ester feeding dose-dependently lowered serum cholesterol levels as a result of a reduced secretion of VLDL cholesterol. This was caused by a decreased hepatic cholesterol content that also resulted in a lowered biliary cholesterol output, indicative of a reduced lithogenicity of bile in these mice.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1046-1052
Number of pages7
JournalArteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology
Volume21
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2001

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