OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the effect of dietary intake of micronutrients that are metabolized and excreted via the urinary tract on bladder cancer risk. METHODS: A semi-quantitative 322 item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to collect dietary data from 200 bladder cancer cases and 386 control subjects participating in the Belgian case-control study on bladder cancer risk. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using unconditional logistic regression adjusting for age, sex, smoking characteristics, occupational exposures, and energy intake. RESULTS: We observed a positive association between calcium intake and bladder cancer (OR: 1.77; 95% CI: 1.00-3.15; p-trend = 0.049) and increased odds, although not statistically significant, for highest tertile of phosphorus intake (OR: 1.82; 95% CI: 0.95-3.49; p-trend = 0.06). We identified possible modification of the effects of both calcium and phosphorus by level of magnesium intake. Increased odds of bladder cancer were also observed for participants with highest intake of phosphorus and lowest intake of vitamin D (OR: 4.25; 95% CI: 1.44-12.55) and among older participants with the highest intakes of calcium (OR: 1.90; 95% CI: 1.08-3.36) and phosphorus (OR: 2.02; 95% CI: 1.05-3.92). CONCLUSION: The positive associations we observed between bladder cancer and intake of calcium and phosphorus require confirmation by other studies. The balances between inter-related micronutrients also warrant further examination.
Brinkman, M. T., Buntinx, F. J. V. M., Kellen, E., Dagnelie, P. C., van Dongen, M. C., Muls, E., & Zeegers, M. P. A. (2011). Dietary intake of micronutrients and the risk of developing bladder cancer: results from the Belgian case-control study on bladder cancer risk. Cancer Causes & Control, 22(3), 469-478. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10552-010-9718-z