Dietary intake of advanced glycation endproducts is associated with higher levels of advanced glycation endproducts in plasma and urine: The CODAM study

Jean L. J. M. Scheijen, Nordin M. J. Hanssen, Marleen M. van Greevenbroek, Carla J. van der Kallen, Edith J. M. Feskens, Coen D. A. Stehouwer, Casper G. Schalkwijk*

*Corresponding author for this work

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Background & aims: Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) are formed by the reaction between reducing sugars and proteins. AGEs in the body have been associated with several age-related diseases. High-heat treated and most processed foods are rich in AGEs. The aim of our study was to investigate whether dietary AGEs, are associated with plasma and urinary AGE levels. Methods: In 450 participants of the Cohort on Diabetes and Atherosclerosis Maastricht study (CODAM study) we measured plasma and urine concentrations of the AGEs N epsilon-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), N epsilon-(1-carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL) and N delta-(5-hydro-5-methyl-4-imidazolon-2-y1)-ornithine (MG-H1) using UPLC-MS/MS. We also estimated dietary intake of CML, CEL and MG-H1 with the use of a dietary AGE database and a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). We used linear regression to investigate the association between standardized dietary AGE intake and standardized plasma or urinary AGE levels, after adjustment for age, sex, glucose metabolism status, waist circumference, kidney function, energy- and macro-nutrient intake, smoking status, physical activity, alcohol intake, LDL-cholesterol and markers of oxidative stress. Results: We found that higher intake of dietary CML, CEL and MG-H1 was associated with significantly higher levels of free plasma and urinary CML, CEL and MG-H1 (beta CML = 0.253 (95% CI 0.086; 0.415), beta CEL = 0.194 (95% CI 0.040; 0.339), beta MG-H1 = 0.223 (95% CI 0.069; 0.373) for plasma and pan = 0.223 (95% CI 0.049; 0.393), beta CEL = 0.180 (95% CI 0.019; 0.332), beta MG-H1 = 0.196 (95% CI 0.037; 0.349) for urine, respectively). In addition, we observed non-significant associations of dietary AGEs with their corresponding protein bound plasma AGEs. Conclusion: We demonstrate that higher intake of dietary AGEs is associated with higher levels of AGEs in plasma and urine. Our findings may have important implications for those who ingest a diet rich in AGEs. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)919-925
Number of pages7
JournalClinical Nutrition
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2018


  • Advanced glycation endproducts
  • Ultra-performance liquid chromatography
  • tandem mass spectrometry
  • Food frequency questionnaire
  • Diet
  • Maillard reaction
  • RISK
  • FOOD
  • AGE


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