Dietary advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) increase their concentration in plasma and tissues, result in inflammation and modulate gut microbial composition in mice; evidence for reversibility

Katja C. W. van Dongen, Armand M. A. Linkens, Suzan M. W. Wetzels, Kristiaan Wouters, Tim Vanmierlo, Marjo P. H. van de Waarenburg, Jean L. J. M. Scheijen, Willem M. de Vos, Clara Belzer, Casper G. Schalkwijk*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Scope: Dietary advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) are associated with negative biological effects, possibly due to accumulation in plasma and tissues and through modulation of inflammation and gut microbiota. Whether these biological consequences are reversible by limiting dietary AGE intake is unknown.

Methods and results: Young healthy C57BL/6 mice were fed a standard chow (n = 10) or a baked chow high AGE-diet (n = 10) (similar to 1.8-6.9 fold increased protein-bound N epsilon-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), N epsilon-(1-carboxyethyl) lysine (CEL), and N delta-(5-hydro-5-methyl-4-imidazolon-2-yl)-ornithine (MG-H1)) for 10 weeks or a switch diet with baked chow for 5 weeks followed by 5 weeks of standard chow (n = 10). We assessed accumulation of AGEs in plasma, kidney, and liver and measured inflammatory markers and gut microbial composition. After 10 weeks of baked chow, a substantial panel of AGEs were increased in plasma, liver, and kidney. These increases were normalized after the switch diet. The inflammatory z-score increased after the baked chow diet. Gut microbial composition differed significantly between groups, with enriched Dubosiella spp. dominating these alterations.

Conclusion: A high AGE-diet led to an increase of AGEs in plasma, kidney, and liver and to more inflammation and modification of the gut microbiota. These effects were reversed or discontinued by a diet lower in AGEs.

Original languageEnglish
Article number110547
Number of pages13
JournalFood Research International
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2021


  • Dietary advanced glycation endproducts
  • Gut microbiota
  • 16S rRNA sequencing
  • Ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

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