Development of Cocaine-Induced Interstitial Lung Damage in Two CYP2C and VKORC1 Variant Allele Carriers

P.A.H.M. Wijnen, O. Bekers, M. Drent*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Background: Often, the connection between drug use and the development of related inflammatory damage or idiosyncratic toxicities is hard to recognize and objectify. The presence of cytochrome P450 (CYP) variant genotypes appears to be a substantial susceptibility risk factor in the development of drug-induced pulmonary adverse events. We hypothesized that the presence of variant alleles may be associated with serious complications of illicit drug use. Case Report: We report the cases of two cocaine users who developed a 'flu-like' syndrome with diffuse interstitial infiltrates after cocaine abuse. Genotyping for CYP (CYP2C9, CYP2C19) and vitamin K epoxide reductase complex 1 (VKORC1) allelic variants (-1639G/A and 1173C/T) was performed in these two patients. Both cases were heterozygous for VKORC1 variant alleles, and both possessed a CYP2C polymorphism (case 1: CYP2C19*1/*2; case 2: CYP2C9*1/*3). Conclusions: The described drug abuse cases suggest that an association between the presence of CYP2C and VKORC1 allelic variants and cocaine-induced interstitial lung damage is highly likely. It is assumed that these polymorphisms contribute to intra-individual variability in drug response and toxicity, including cocaine response and toxicity. Moreover, the importance of including pharmacogenomics in the work-up of patients with suspected drug-induced (lung) toxicity, such as alveolar hemorrhage, is highlighted by these cases.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)177-180
JournalMolecular Diagnosis & Therapy
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2011

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