Adolescent hookah pipe use is increasing at a rapid rate, thus posing a major public health concern globally. The hookah pipe is a gateway substance to other substances that may be more harmful. Yet, at present, little is known about why adolescents are so drawn to this mechanism. It is this gap that this study attempted to fill. This study, therefore, aimed to review the determinants of adolescent hookah pipe use. An electronic search of 12 databases identified studies investigating determinants of adolescent hookah pipe use. Twenty-five studies sampling a total of 88,988 adolescents who use the hookah pipe were included. This study found that adolescent hookah pipe use is determined by an interplay of family factors, peer/friends factors, individual factors, school factors, the actual hookah pipe mechanism, advertisements, and awareness of hookah pipe lounges or bars. Prevention and early intervention strategies aimed at reducing adolescent hookah pipe use is needed.
- hookah pipe
- prevention and early intervention strategies
- systematic review