Detailed assessment of incontinence in boys with fragile-X-syndrome in a home setting

Justine Niemczyk*, Alexander von Gontard, Monika Equit, Katharina Bauer, Teresa Naumann, C. Wagner, Leopold Curfs

*Corresponding author for this work

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Fragile-X-syndrome (FXS) is caused by a mutation on the X chromosome (Xq27.3). Males with a full mutation have typical dysmorphic signs, moderate intellectual disability and psychological disorders. Twenty-five to fifty percent are affected by incontinence. The aim of the study was to assess subtypes of incontinence and psychological problems in children with FXS in their home environments. Twenty-two boys with FXS (mean age 11.0 years) and 22 healthy controls (mean age 11.1 years) were examined with sonography, uroflowmetry, 48-h bladder diary, physical examination, IQ test, parental psychiatric interview and questionnaires regarding incontinence and psychological symptoms in a home setting. Boys with FXS had higher rates of incontinence than controls (59.1 vs. 4.8 %). The most common subtypes in FXS boys were primary non-monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis, urge incontinence and nonretentive faecal incontinence. 90.9 % boys with FXS had a psychological comorbidity. Incontinence and behavioural symptoms were not associated. Conclusion: Boys with FXS have a higher risk for physical disabilities, psychological disorders and incontinence than healthy boys. Constipation is not a major problem in FXS. As effective treatment is available for children with ID, we recommend offering assessment and therapy to all children with FXS and incontinence.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1325-1334
JournalEuropean Journal of Pediatrics
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2016


  • Fragile-X-syndrome
  • Urinary incontinence
  • Nocturnal enuresis
  • Faecal incontinence
  • Constipation
  • Psychological disorders

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