How to facilitate learning by novices (students) on their road to expertise has attracted the attention of a vast number of researchers in cognitive and educational psychology as well in the field of learning and instruction. Although many studies have investigated the phenomenon of expertise development, the implications of the findings for instruction are scattered throughout the literature. This article reports the results of a systematic literature review of 37 studies on expertise development. Using Tynjala's Integrative Pedagogy Model as an organising framework, the implications for educational practice described in these studies are presented as 10 instructional principles. This study takes a step towards translating expertise development research into guidelines for instruction. Implications for future research are discussed.
- Instructional principles
- learning theory
- professional expertise development
- COGNITIVE SCIENCE