Design and performance of a dark-field probe with confocal Raman spectroscopy for ophthalmic applications

Shuo Zhang, Roel J. Erckens, Franciscus H. M. Jongsma, Carroll A. B. Webers, Tos T. J. M. Berendschot*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

2 Citations (Web of Science)


A dark-field ophthalmic contact probe for analysis of aqueous humor (AH) was designed by ray tracing and constructed in quartz glass for experimental use as a prototype probe in a confocal Raman spectroscopic setup. The misalignment tolerance of this probe was theoretically evaluated, whereas the optical performance was experimentally evaluated by a concentration curve of the ocular drug phenylephrine HCl in an artificial eye model. The results indicated a ninefold improvement in misalignment tolerance and a 36-fold improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio at the phenylephrine HCl 1002 cm(-1) peak compared with a previous design. The prototype showed a good linear fit with the phenylephrine HCl concentration, with an R-2 of 0.996. Phenylephrine HCl concentration down to 0.1% is detectable.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1371-1375
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Raman Spectroscopy
Issue number7
Early online date5 May 2021
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2021


  • aqueous humor
  • dark&#8208
  • field illumination
  • ocular drug
  • Raman spectroscopy

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