Defining and measuring innovation in all sectors of the economy

F. Gault*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

124 Citations (Web of Science)


This paper combines general definitions of innovation applicable in all economic sectors with a systems approach, to develop a conceptual framework for the statistical measurement of innovation. The resulting indicators can be used for monitoring and evaluation of innovation policies that have been implemented, as well as for international comparisons. The extension of harmonised innovation measurement to all economic sectors has implications for innovation research and for policy learning.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)617-622
Number of pages6
JournalResearch Policy
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2018

JEL classifications

  • o32 - Management of Technological Innovation and R&D
  • o47 - "Measurement of Economic Growth; Aggregate Productivity; Cross-Country Output Convergence"


  • Innovation
  • Innovation definitions
  • Innovation policy
  • Innovation systems
  • Measurement of innovation
  • Policy learning
  • Conceptual frameworks
  • Innovation measurements
  • Innovation policies
  • Innovation research
  • Innovation system
  • International comparison
  • Monitoring and evaluations
  • Engineering

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