Dark-field illumination in conjunction with confocal Raman spectroscopy for real-time noninvasive aqueous humor investigation

Shuo Zhang, Roel J. Erckens, Frans H. M. Jongsma, John De Brabander, Carroll A. B. Webers, Tos T. J. M. Berendschot*

*Corresponding author for this work

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To obtain a real-time noninvasive analysis of the content of the aqueous humor (AH) in the eye, a confocal dark-field ophthalmic probe was designed and optimized by ray-tracing software. The confocal technique allows Raman spectrometric sampling of the AH with suppressing signals from the surrounding tissues. Dark-field illumination prevents the excitation light to reach the vulnerable retinal tissue directly. In order to evaluate the optical performance and safety of this method, a functional prototyped eye contact probe has been designed and tested on ex vivo rabbit eyes. (C) 2020 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)

Original languageEnglish
Article number092002
Number of pages9
JournalOptical Engineering
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2020


  • Raman spectroscopy
  • eye
  • aqueous humor
  • confocal microscopy
  • dark-field illumination

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